Saturday, May 23, 2020

What Is a Testable Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a scientific question. A testable hypothesis is a  hypothesis that can be proved or disproved as a result of testing, data collection, or experience. Only testable hypotheses can be used to conceive and perform an experiment using the scientific method. Requirements for a Testable Hypothesis In order to be considered testable, two criteria must be met: It must be possible to prove that the hypothesis is true.It must be possible to prove that the hypothesis is false.It must be possible to reproduce the results of the hypothesis. Examples of a Testable Hypothesis All the following hypotheses are testable. Its important, however, to note that while its possible to say that the hypothesis is correct, much more research would be required to answer the question why is this hypothesis correct?   Students who attend class have higher grades than students who skip class.  This is testable because it is possible to compare the grades of students who do and do not skip class and then analyze the resulting data. Another person could conduct the same research and come up with the same results.People exposed to high levels of ultraviolet light have a higher incidence of cancer than the norm.  This is testable because it is possible to find a group of people who have been exposed to high levels of ultraviolet light and compare their cancer rates to the average.If you put people  in a dark room, then they will be unable to tell when an infrared light turns on.  This hypothesis is testable because it is possible to put a group of people into a dark room, turn on an infrared light, and ask the people in the room whether or not an infrared light has been turned on. Examples of a Hypothesis Not Written in a Testable Form It doesnt matter whether or not you skip class.  This hypothesis cant be tested because it doesnt make any actual claim regarding the outcome of skipping class. It doesnt matter doesnt have any specific meaning, so it cant be tested.Ultraviolet light could cause  cancer.  The word could makes a hypothesis extremely difficult to test because it is very vague. There could, for example, be UFOs watching us at every moment, even though its impossible to prove that they are there!Goldfish make better pets than guinea pigs.  This is not a hypothesis; its a matter of opinion. There is no agreed-upon definition of what a better pet is, so while it is possible to argue the point, there is no way to prove it. How to Propose a Testable Hypothesis Now that you know what a testable hypothesis is, here are tips for proposing one. Try to write the hypothesis as an if-then statement. If you take an action, then a certain outcome is expected.Identify the independent and dependent variable in the hypothesis. The independent variable is what you are controlling or changing. You measure the effect this has on the dependent variable.Write the hypothesis in such a way that you can prove or disprove it. For example, a person has skin cancer, you cant prove they got it from being out in the sun. However, you can demonstrate a relationship between exposure to ultraviolet light and increased risk of skin cancer.Make sure you are proposing a hypothesis you can test with reproducible results.  If your face breaks out, you cant prove the breakout was caused by the french fries you had for dinner last night. However, you can measure whether or not eating french fries is associated with breaking out. Its a matter of gathering enough data to be able to reproduce results and draw a conclusion.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Sample Presentation on Success in Life

Public speaking is a difficult task for anyone regardless of ones personality traits. Both extroverts and introverts experience difficulties when giving public presentations because simply being confident is not enough to deliver a good presentation. A successful presentation is one that captures the interest of an audience and delivering one involves preparing a written sample and practicing its delivery. Here is a sample presentation on success in life. It is important to note that success has different meanings for each of us. A professional athlete might define success as winning a medal in the Olympics while simply qualifying for the Olympics would be viewed as success to other athletes. Irrespective of your definition of what it means to be successful, there is a general mind set and approach you must imbibe to achieve it. It consists of, first of all, thinking positively: are you an optimist or a pessimist? Whichever your answer is, it is important that one understands the power of the mind and how it affects the way we approach tasks. Mastering the act of positivity gives everyone a head start in life regardless of the challenges you might face working to achieve your goals. You must also be willing to work diligently: in a professional setting, diligence means the ability to work hard and go the extra mile to get your job done. Irrespective of work policies, a diligent worker will always be noticed which could lead to rapid promotions and ultimately a successful career in life. Setting attainable goals is an important skill for success as well. Breaking down your goals into set categories is one way to stay focused while striving to achieve your aims. To do this, simply divide bulky projects into smaller components and set timeframes for completing each component. Once this is done, you must avoid procrastination when trying to execute the required task. With time, working to achieve set goals by effectively managing your time will become a part of you. To be successful you have to achieve a good work-life balance: while wealth and financial success increases an individuals quality of life, a good upbringing and family life elevates the society we live in. Therefore, it is imperative for all who make up the working class to also pay attention to their personal health, happiness and family. Employers are also saddled with the responsibility of ensuring that their workers are provided with enough time to participate in family activities. You also need to learn to communicate properly. We interact by talking, and developing good interpersonal skills is important for achieving success both in the professional and domestic front. Successful professionals learn to communicate their ideas perfectly through speaking, in writing or by presenting information using PowerPoint. At home, speaking with your close ones and understanding your familys needs will make communication among family members delightful. Lastly, striving to do your best in every situation you find yourself ensures that you are on the pathway to success in both your professional and domestic life. References Christina, D. (2015). 7 Scientifically Proven Ways to Achieve Better Success in Life. Available at: Larry, S. (2015). 20 Essential Life Lessons for Happiness and Success. Available at: Kara, H. (2014). How To Be Successful In Life: 13 Tips From The World’s Most Successful People. Available at: Gayle, S. (2014). 10 Characteristics Successful Business Owners Share. Available at: Meiko, P. (2014). 21 Ways to Achieve Wealth and Success. Available at: Napoleon, H. (1937). Think and Grow Rich, 8-9. Carnegie, D. (2011). How To Win Friends and Influence People, 143.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Secondary Data Free Essays

string(150) " by customer location product Q\) What is a computerized Data Base\? COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE A database is simply a collection of related information\." Q) What are Secondary Data? Secondary Data Secondary data is information gathered for purposes other than the completion of a research project. Data previously collected by someone else, possibly for some other purpose that can be used later for making decisions if found suitable for the purpose, other than the original one. Secondary data can be acquired from the internal records of the organization, their departments, subsidiaries or sister organizations and also from external sources, such as chambers of commerce, government, professional and commercial consultants subject to the availability of data . We will write a custom essay sample on Secondary Data or any similar topic only for you Order Now e. g. , data in books, journals, newspapers, magazines, etc. †¢ e. g. , data in reports, surveys, etc A variety of secondary information sources is available to the researcher gathering data on an industry, potential product applications and the market place. Secondary data is also used to gain initial insight into the research problem. Secondary data is classified in terms of its source – either internal or external. Internal, or in-house data, is secondary information acquired within the organization where research is being carried out. External secondary data is obtained from outside sources. The secondary information will provide a useful background and will identify key questions and issues that will need to be addressed by the primary research. BENEFITS †¢ Low cost †¢ Less effort †¢ Less time †¢ At times, more accurate †¢ At times, only way to obtain data LIMITATION †¢ Collected for some other purpose †¢ No control over data collection †¢ May not be accurate †¢ May not be in correct form †¢ May be outdated †¢ May not meet data requirements †¢ Assumptions have to be made Q) What are the major problems encountered with Secondary Data? It is necessary that the secondary data are taken from a source which obtained from the original source, and then a secondary source is being used. It is important to avoid the use of secondary sources by using only the original sources for a Secondary Data. The other problems may include: †¢ Secondary information pertinent to the research topic is either not available, or is only available in insufficient quantities. †¢ Some secondary data may be of questionable accuracy and reliability. Even government publications and trade magazines statistics can be misleading. For example, many trade magazines survey their members to derive estimates of market size, market growth rate and purchasing patterns, then average out these results. Often these statistics are merely average opinions based on less than 10% of their members. †¢ Data may be in a different format or units than is required by the researcher. †¢ The methodology used by the party for collecting the secondary data is not explained and the accuracy level may not be verified. Much secondary data is several years old and may not reflect the current market conditions. Trade journals and other publications often accept articles six months before appear in print. The research may have been done months or even years earlier. Q) What are the major sources of Internal Data? Internal Data Internal secondary data is usually an inexpensive information source for the company conducting research, and is the place to start for existing operations. Internally generated sales and pricing data can be used as a research source. The use of this data is to define the competitive position of the firm, an evaluation of a marketing strategy the firm has used in the past, or gaining a better understanding of the company’s best customers. The main sources of internal data may include: 1. Sales and marketing reports. These can include such things as: †¢ Type of product/service purchased †¢ Type of end-user/industry segment †¢ Method of payment †¢ Product or product line †¢ Sales territory †¢ Salesperson †¢ Date of purchase †¢ Amount of purchase †¢ Price †¢ Application by product †¢ Location of end-user 2. Accounting and financial records. These are often an overlooked source of internal secondary information and can be invaluable in the identification, clarification and prediction of certain problems. Accounting records can be used to evaluate the success of various marketing strategies such as revenues from a direct marketing campaign. There are several problems in using accounting and financial data. One is the timeliness factor – it is often several months before accounting statements are available. Another is the structure of the records themselves. Most firms do not adequately setup their accounts to provide the types of answers to research questions that they need. For example, the account systems should capture project/product costs in order to identify the company’s most profitable (and least profitable) activities. Companies should also consider establishing performance indicators based on financial data. These can be industry standards or unique ones designed to measure key performance factors that will enable the firm to monitor its performance over a period of time and compare it to its competitors. Some example may be sales per employee, sales per square foot, expenses per employee (salesperson, etc. ). 3. Miscellaneous reports. These can include such things as inventory reports, service calls, number (qualifications and compensation) of staff, production and RD reports. Also the company’s business plan and customer calls (complaints) log can be useful sources of information. COMMON SOURCES OF INTERNAL SECONDARY DATA Information originating within the company 1. Sales invoices a. Customer name b. Address c. Class of product/service sold d. Price by unit e. Salesperson f. Term of sales g. Shipment point 2. Accounts receivable reports a. Customer name b. Product purchased c. Total unit and dollar sales d. Customer as percentage of sales . Customer as percentage of regional sales f. Profit margin g. Credit rating h. Items returned i. Reason for return 3. Quarterly sales report a. Total dollar and unit sales by: Customer Geographic segment Customer segment Sales territory Product Sales report Product segment b. Total sales against planned objective c. Total sales against budget d. Total sales against prio r periods e. Actual sales percentage increase/decrease f. Contribution trends 4. Sales activity reports a. Classification of customer account i. e. Mega, Large, Medium and Small b. Available dollar sales potential c. Current sales penetration d. Existing bids/contracts by customer location product Q) What is a computerized Data Base? COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE A database is simply a collection of related information. You read "Secondary Data" in category "Essay examples" More specifically a computerized database is a computerized record keeping system. More completely, it is a system involving data, the hardware that physically stores that data, the software that utilizes the hardware’s file system in order to 1) store the data and 2) provide a standardized method for retrieving or changing the data, and finally, the users who turn the data into information. For many companies, a computerized database containing information about customers and prospects has become an essential marketing tool. Creating an internal marketing secondary database built upon sales results and customer preferences can be a powerful marketing tool. Databases dealing with published information usually found in libraries, such as books, articles and other types of documents, are commonly called bibliographic databases. Computerized databases published secondary data, the Internet, and internal databases are important parts of an organization’s information system. Intelligent decision making is always predicated on having good information. †¢ When a person uses an automated teller machine to withdraw money from the bank account, he/she is using a computerized database. †¢ When a travel agent makes an airline reservation for the customers, he/she is using a computerized database. †¢ When a telephone operator gives the customer a phone number, he/she is using a computerized database. Any significant collections of information stored on computers are virtually always organized as databases and are known as computerized data base. Computerized Database On-line vendors – purchase (rent) databases from a number of suppliers and sell to the subscribers (e. g. services provided by America Online, DIALOG). ON-LINE DATABASES Provide http: easy and direct access to public information through a computer. There are about 7,000 databases on a variety of topics that one can use. Q) Describe a specialized online data base of marketing manager? An online database which can be used by a marketing manager for Substantial Cost Savings, for Increasing the understanding of the Decision Environment, Upgrading the Decision-Making Effectiveness, Improving the Information Value. This may include: †¢ Internet – World-wide telecommunications network that allows computers to access data, files, pictures and sound throughout the world. †¢ World Wide Web – Component of the Internet designed to make transmission of text and images very easy. †¢ Uniform Reference Locator (URL) – Internet address that identifies a specific location. – A typical Web address looks like the following: http://www. microsoft. com †¢ Search Engines – Internet search directories to aid in locating topics of interest and URLs. – An example is Yahoo at http://www. yahoo. com On-line Databases Consist of: Internet, Direct from Vendors, Direct from Producer, Indirect through Networks Organizations Must Create a Database Management System. Managers must be trained on How to Retrieve Information and How to Manipulate the Data Using Database Management Software. A marketing manager can use a specialized data base to fulfill his/her tasks effectively and efficiently through: †¢ Internet †¢ Website †¢ Emails †¢ Online Subscriptions †¢ Online queries †¢ Online Feed back †¢ Newsgroups on the Internet †¢ Internet sites devoted to a specific topic where people can read and post messages. †¢ Databases on CD ROM A number of companies offer database packages on CD ROM for personal computers that is very useful for manager in decision making and other tasks. †¢ Geographic Information Systems †¢ Computer-based system that uses secondary and/or primary data to generate maps that visually display answers to research questions. †¢ Decision Sup port System – Through Online Data Base an interactive, personalized MIS, designed to be initiated and controlled by individual decision makers. – Managers use decision support systems to conduct sales analyses, forecast sales, evaluate advertising, analyze product lines, and keep tabs n market trends and competitor analysis. Creating Databases from a Web Site -A Marketing Manager’s Dream – Customer’s link to an online store is a two-way electronic link – Allows online merchant to gather information about the customer – Text file place on a user’s computer in order to identify the user when there is a return visit to the Web site. – Helping Managers in creation of a large computerized file of customers’ and potential customers’ profiles and purchase patterns. – It is the fastest-growing use of internal database technology. A manager has to build company’s online Pages on Search Engines. Working online to find out target audiences and provide them information through Internet services performing internet marketing services that are mention above. The services are designed to help the company’s website increase its. Through this Online Database a marketing Manager is able to get, Demographic Dimensions Population growth: actual and projected Population density In-migration and out-migration patterns Population trends by age, race, and ethnic background Employment Characteristics Labor force growth Unemployment levels Percentage of employment by occupation categories Employment by industry Economic Characteristics Personal income levels (per capita and median) Type of manufacturing/service firms Total housing starts Building permits issued Sales tax rates Competitive Characteristics Levels of retail and wholesale sales Number and types of competing retailers Availability of financial institutions International Market Characteristics Transportation and exporting requirements Trade barriers Business philosophies Legal system Social customs Political climate Cultural patterns Religious and moral backgrounds Common Government Documents Used as Secondary Data Sources Statistics of Income Survey of Current Business Through a specialized Online Data Base a marketing manager able to get up-to-date information. A marketing Manager able to, †¢ Evaluate sales territory. †¢ PLC †¢ Identify most profitable and least profitable customers. †¢ Identify most profitable market segments and target efforts with greater efficiency and effectiveness. †¢ Aim marketing efforts to those products, services, and segments that require the most support. †¢ Increase revenue through repackaging and re-pricing products for various market segments. Evaluate opportunities for offering new products or services. †¢ Identify products or services that are best-sellers or most profitable. †¢ Evaluate existing marketing programs. †¢ Database Technologies †¢ Database technologies continue to evolve. For example, Fingerhut, a database firm, uses a Sun Microsystems parallel co mputer, whereas American Express relies on Thinking Machines Corporation’s supercomputers. †¢ Renting Internal Databases †¢ Some companies rent their internal databases to obtain extra income, although this can lead to ethical questions. [pic] How to cite Secondary Data, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Kings lear Essay Example For Students

Kings lear Essay Humans, like all creatures on the earth, have the privilege of thefreedom of choice. There are two broad ranges of factors that affect thedecisions a person makes. The first factor that affects decision making isinternal and includes a persons character and intellect. The secondfactor is external such as environment and interaction with other people. Naturally, each decision a person makes results in a repercussion of somedegree, usually either helpful or hindering, and rarely inconsequential. The concept of justice is based on the fact that decisions are alwaysfollowed by consequences. It strictly adheres to the rewarding of gooddeeds and the punishment of evil. King Lear, a play by WilliamShakespeare, is a grave tragedy that is a prime example of the Elizabethanconception of justice. Lears kingdom turns to chaos because of a break inthe Great Chain of Being and restores to order when justice prevails. Its tragic labelling stems from the prevalence of death the just punishmentfor many of its characters. The deaths of Lear, Goneril, and Edmund areprime examples of justice prevailing for evil, and in Lears caseunnatural, acts. Lears ultimate fate is death. His early demise is a direct result ofbreaching the Great Chain of Being which states that no mortal willabandon his position in the hierarchy of ranking set by God. Learsintention of abdicating his throne is apparent from the outset and is seenin the following speech spoken during the opening scene of the play:. . . tis our fast intentTo shake all cares and business from our age,Conferring them on younger strengths while weUnburdened crawl toward death. . .1Evidently the splitting of Lears kingdom and abdication of his throneis not an act of necessity, but an act toward easing the remainder of hislife. Lears disruption of the Great Chain of Being is in an unnaturalfashion because the abdication of his kingship is without dire or mortalcause. The method of passing down his land to his heirs is also unnatural,as seen in the following excerpts:. . . Know that we have dividedIn three our kingdom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . We have this hour a constant will to publishOur daughters several dowers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Which of you three daughters shall we say doth love us most?That we our largest bounty may extendWhere nature doth with merit challenge. . . .2Lear does not bestow his kingdom upon his eldest son, nor is he evengoing to bestow the largest portion of the divided kingdom upon his eldestson. He expresses his intent to split his kingdom and grant the pieces ashis daughters dowers, the largest piece being granted to whichever of thethree professes to love him most. This is a violation of the natural orderof commonly accepted hierarchy that states a fathers estate be endowedupon his eldest son. An error in judgement and untempered release of angerare also factors contributing to Lears downfall. Lear listens to flatteryfrom Goneril, I love you more than word can wield the/matter;3 and Regan,I find she Goneril names my very deed of love,/Only she comes too short. . .4 in their bidding to profess they love Lear the most among the threedaughters, but Cordelia does not compete with their flattery: Cor. Unhappy that I am, I cannot heaveMy heart into my mouth. I love your Majesty LearAccording to my bond filial, no more nor less.5Cordelia cannot flatter Lear with praise and states that she merelyloves him as a daughter should love her father, with respect and obedience. Lear is so heartbroken by his youngest, and until then his most beloved,daughters refusal to praise him with her love that a rage ensues: Lear. Let it be so! thy truth then be they dower!For, by the sacred radiance of the sun,The mysteries of Hecate and the night;By all the operation of the orbs starsFrom whom we do exist and cease to be;Here I disclaim all my paternal care,Propinquity and property of blood,And as a stranger to my heart and meHold thee from this for ever. . .6Lear acknowledges that Cordelia s speaking the truth. Althoughconfessions of filial love are not inappropriate or evil, Lears judgementis clouded by anger at Cordelias refusal to praise him with flattery as hehad planned and he swears by the gods that Cordelia is no longer hisdaughter and chooses not to give any portion of land as her dower. Learsdisowning of his daughter for refusing to participate in his unnaturalrites of determining which daughters receive which lands has proved thathis judgements are misguid ed. Finally, justice is fulfilled when Lear diesat the end of the play. The justice is in response to actions that hecommits which are not necessarily evil-hearted, but for the refusal toabide by the Great Chain of Being and his irrational and cruel disowningand banishment of Cordelia. Sexual Harassment and Rape EssayYou have now the good advantage of the night. Have you not spoken gainst the Duke of Cornwall?Hes coming hither; now, i the night, i the haste,And Regan with him. Have you nothing saidUpon his party gainst the Duke of Albany?Advise yourself. Edg. I am sure ont, not a word. Edm. I hear my father coming. Pardon me!In cunning I must draw my sword upon you. Draw, seem to defend yourself; now quit you well.Yield! Come before my father. Light, ho, here!Fly, brother.Torches, torches!So farewell.13Edmund asks Edgar if he has offended the Dukes of Cornwall or Albanythat would provoke Cornwall to come to Gloucesters castle with such hastein the middle of the night. Edgar pleads innocence, forcing Edmund toenhance his deception. He tells Edgar that he must draw his sword as ifdefending himself or trying to capture a wanted man. Edgar flees, and toenhance the deception in Gloucesters eyes even further Edmund stabshimself. Bringing the murderous coward Edgar to the stake;/He thatconceals him, death.14 Gloucester, arriving on the scene, is convinced ofEdgars treason. Edmund has removed Edgar from his fathers favour, butdoes not yet possess Gloucesters lands or wealth. An opportunity presentsitself which Edmund plans to take advantage of: Glou. . . .I havereceived a letter this nighttis dangerous to be spokenIhave locked the letter in my closet. T hese injuries theKing now bears will be revenged home; there is a part of apower already footed. . .15Gloucester reveals to Edmund a letter he received. It entails that asecret power, France, has landed in the realm to revenge disrespect towardLear. Edmund says: Edm. This courtesy, forbid thee, shall the DukeInstantly know, and of that letter too. Seems a fair deserving, and must draw meThat which my father losesno less than all. The younger rises when the old doth fall.16Edmund plans to tell the Duke of Albany of the letter Gloucester hasreceived and of his journey to inform Lear of the French forces coming toaid him. The information makes Gloucester look like a traitor in theDukes eyes and Edmund realizes he will be rewarded with his fathers landssince they will be stripped from him for treason. Edmunds evilheartedness and willingness to sacrifice his family for status and wealthclearly demands some sort of punishment as justice. It is only fittingthat the betrayal of his own blood, both his father and brother, isanswered by justice in his death at Edgars hands. Lear, Goneril, and Edmund were each motivated in different ways. Learswas an unnatural and irrational motivation. Greed and selfishness movedEdmund to the decisions he made. Lastly, Gonerils heart was of the basestevil and jealousy. Although the methods and paths of their downfall weredifferent, each person suffers the identical fate as decided by justice. It is debatable whether each decision we make is weighed on a cosmic scalewith justice waiting to punish the evil or reward the good, but what iscertain is that each decision we make plays a direct role in our futures.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Facebook Status Updates - a Content Analysis free essay sample

Motivation When analyzing Facebook posts or messages from any other microblogging platform, you can take into account plenty of different aspects. On the one hand you can investigate correlations between posts and demographical aspects of the user, the duration of status updates, intentions of the user to share certain information, simply the content of the post and many more. Since in former research most studies concentrated only on one of these aspects, the connection between two or more of them have not yet been examined. Are, for example, certain topics often mentioned with a certain emotion or intention? Or which topics are the ones people talk negatively about or complain about? In this study the dimensions topic, intention, emotion as well as other components will be put in a relationship. Moreover most of the studies were based on automatic word and content notification software. Our analysis is based on manual work. We will write a custom essay sample on Facebook Status Updates a Content Analysis or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Often times the real intention or emotional component can only be understood by manually analyzing a Facebook post since many people might use rhetorical expressions, dialects or cryptical messages which cannot be understood by a program. Hence, this could give this study a greater extent of accuracy. Additionally, none of the former research was based only on German status updates what gives the opportunity to draw a comparison between cultures, countries or languages in future studies. Grounded Theory For this study, data analyzing concepts of grounded theory are used. Grounded Theory was introduced in 1967 by Amseln Strauss and Barney Glaser. According o Strauss and Glaser, Grounded Theory is a â€Å"systematic, qualitative process used to generate a theory that explains, at a broad conceptual level, a process, an action, or interaction about a substantive topic† (Creswell, 2002, p 439) To develop a theory out of qualitative data, this approach uses a â€Å"systematic set of processes to develop an inductively derived Grounded Theory about a phenomenon† (Strauss, Corbin, 1990, p24). The three basic elements of Grounded Theory are concepts, categories and propositions. They are part of the data analyzi ng process of Grounded Theory. In this paper we focus only on these three elements. In the next section, we will describe the process of coding based on the provided dataset and present our results of the analyzed data. Case study We analyzed a dataset consisting of 1200 status updates from Facebook in order to give a conclusion about what people talk about on Facebook. Therefore, we conceptualized and analyzed the data like in the following. Developing a Coding Framework According to Strauss and Corbin coding â€Å"†¦represents the operation by which data are broken down, conceptualized, and put back together in new ways. It is the central process by which theories are built from data. † (Strauss and Corbin, 1990, p. 57) To make an analysis feasible, we developed a general coding framework that can be applied on all Facebook status updates. As several people worked on this framework, comparing results was important to receive a consistent list. The development of our coding framework consists of three steps: Developing codes, conceptualization, and developing categorizations. In the following, we elaborate on these three steps. Developing codes. The provided dataset consists of 1200 status updates of German Facebook users. For a start we performed open coding by asking simple questions like: * What is the status update about? * Is a location mentioned? * Is it positive or negative etc. We applied these questions on the first 100 status updates. When we read a post for the first time, we coded it with all associated keywords we could think of. As a result, we received an unsystematic list of keywords that represented our list of codes. Conceptualization. The unsystematic list of codes was used to identify concepts and categories. Comparing the list of codes from each coder leaded us to a more systematic first coding list. Several codes were then summarized under a common name. For example, work and study includes education, school, exam, university, programming, studying, and work. Emotions like afraid, fearing, angry, hating, bothered and stressed were conceptualized to disliking/discomfort. The developed new coding list now consists of several codes or concepts which have several meanings. Developing Categorizations. The final step that concludes the development of our coding framework is to assign categories for each code. Work and study for example fits into the category â€Å"Topic†, disliking/discomfort fits in the category â€Å"Emotion†. Finally we identified eight categories. Any category consists of several concepts that again consist of several meanings. We identified the following categories: Topic, Emotion, Intention, Time, Location, Speech, Valence and Process. Topic, Emotion, Location and the connected codes are self-explanatory. For Time we identified besides past, present and future, the components time pressure, time consuming, countdown, time wasting and long time. Intention explains why a user updates his or hers status update. For example expressing an opinion about something can be used as a code for intention.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

The Physics of a Car Collision

The Physics of a Car Collision During a car crash, energy is transferred from the vehicle to whatever it hits, be it another vehicle or a stationary object. This transfer of energy, depending on variables that alter states of motion, can cause injuries and damage cars and property. The object that was struck will either absorb the energy thrust upon it or possibly transfer that energy back to the vehicle that struck it. Focusing on the distinction between  force  and  energy  can help explain the physics involved. Force: Colliding With a Wall Car crashes are clear examples of how Newtons Laws of Motion work. His first law of motion, also referred to as the law of inertia, asserts that an object in motion will stay in motion unless an external force acts upon it. Conversely, if an object is at rest, it will remain at rest until an unbalanced force acts upon it.   Consider a situation in which car A collides with a static, unbreakable wall. The situation begins with car A traveling at a velocity (v) and, upon colliding with the wall, ending with a velocity of 0. The force of this situation is defined by Newtons second law of motion, which uses the equation of force equals mass times acceleration. In this case, the acceleration is (v - 0)/t, where t is whatever time it takes car A to come to a stop. The car exerts this force in the direction of the wall, but the wall, which is static and unbreakable, exerts an equal force back on the car, per Newtons third law of motion. This equal force is what causes cars to accordion up during collisions. Its important to note that this is an idealized model. In the case of car A, if it slams into the wall and comes to an immediate stop, that would be a perfectly inelastic collision. Since the wall doesnt break or move at all, the full force of the car into the wall has to go somewhere. Either the wall is so massive that it accelerates, or moves an imperceptible amount, or it doesnt move at all, in which case the force of the collision acts on the car and the entire planet, the latter of which is, obviously, so massive that the effects are negligible. Force: Colliding With a Car In a situation where car B collides with car C, we have different force considerations. Assuming that car B and car C are complete mirrors of each other (again, this is a highly idealized situation), they would collide with each other going at precisely the same speed but in opposite directions. From conservation of momentum, we know that they must both come to rest. The mass is the same, therefore, the force experienced by car B and car C is identical, and also identical to that acting on the car in case A in the previous example. This explains the force of the collision, but there is a second part of the question: the energy within the collision. Energy Force is a vector quantity while kinetic energy is a scalar quantity, calculated with the formula K 0.5mv2. In the second situation above, each car has kinetic energy K directly before the collision. At the end of the collision, both cars are at rest, and the total kinetic energy of the system is 0. Since these are inelastic collisions, the kinetic energy is not conserved, but total energy is always conserved, so the kinetic energy lost in the collision has to convert into some other form, such as heat, sound, etc. In the first example where only one car is moving, the energy released during the collision is K. In the second example, however, two are cars moving, so the total energy released during the collision is 2K. So the crash in case B is clearly more energetic than the case A crash. From Cars to Particles Consider the major differences between the two situations. At the quantum level of particles, energy and matter can basically swap between states. The physics of a car collision will never, no matter how energetic, emit a completely new car. The car would experience exactly the same force in both cases. The only force that acts on the car is the sudden deceleration from v to 0 velocity in a brief period of time, due to the collision with another object. However, when viewing the total system, the collision in the situation with two cars releases twice as much energy as the collision with a wall. Its louder, hotter, and likely messier. In all likelihood, the cars have fused into each other, pieces flying off in random directions. This is why physicists accelerate particles in a collider to study high-energy physics. The act of colliding two beams of particles is useful because in particle collisions you dont really care about the force of the particles (which you never really measure); you care instead about the energy of the particles. A particle accelerator speeds up particles but does so with a very real speed limitation dictated by the speed of light barrier from Einsteins theory of relativity. To squeeze some extra energy out of the collisions, instead of colliding a beam of near-light-speed particles with a stationary object, its better to collide it with another beam of near-light-speed particles going the opposite direction. From the particles standpoint, they dont so much shatter more, but when the two particles collide, more energy is released. In collisions of particles, this energy can take the form of other particles, and the more energy you pull out of the collision, the more exotic the particles are.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

The National Fire Academy and CDP Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The National Fire Academy and CDP - Essay Example The institution also encompasses training programs that aid FEMA and DHS in prevention, mitigation and preparedness for fire and other emergency services (Giustina, 2014). Other institutions are incapacitated to offer such services, owing to their costs and audience inabilities. Individuals with substantial involvement in fire and prevention and control, emergency medical services, and other fire management-related courses are qualified to apply for various courses within the institution. Firefighting career is a tough profession, and individuals need to sacrifice themselves in order to fit in this challenging career. Initially, individuals could such climb careers through training and experience. However, as the world improves in aspects such as technology and other fields, individuals in the fire fighting profession ought to better their knowledge through rigorous training programs. Most individuals currently advance to degree levels of education. National Fire Academy offers management-training programs and they ought to select eligible candidates for such professions carefully. The institution should select individuals that have completed the basic training program for fire and other related emergencies’ preparedness, prevention and response. This will enhance improving their knowledge on fire and disaster management, hence placing them in a better position for response in case of fire and other related disasters (Giustina, 2014). Additionally, these individuals will have background information of their training prior to the management training. The Center for Domestic Preparedness is another institute under FEMA, tasked with the responsibility of training individuals for preparedness and response to disasters that result from weapons of mass destruction, (WDM) ( Burke, 2006). The institute offers its training through